Between 2007 and 2010, HM Treasury made a series of large financial interventions to support the financial stability of UK banking. These interventions supported four broad aims:
- to protect depositors;
- maintain liquidity for UK banks;
- maintain capital for UK banks; and
- to encourage banks to lend to creditworthy borrowers.
In line with international good practice, HM Treasury and the National Audit Office have worked to ensure that the scale and costs of the various government interventions are transparent. This page sets out the work the National Audit Office has done on the banking interventions and answers some frequently asked questions.
All figures are based on the most recently published HM Treasury Annual Report and Accounts (currently for the year ended 31 March 2018) and will be updated annually.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Q: Why did the Government provide support to UK banks?
In 2007, financial markets entered a sustained period of instability, causing difficulties for banks across the world, precipitating a global credit crisis, a widespread economic downturn and, by 2010, concern over certain Eurozone governments’ ability to service their debt obligations. HM Treasury, like many other finance ministries around the world, took actions to:
- protect depositors in banks suffering insolvency or a severe decline in market confidence;
- maintain liquidity to allow banks, whose failure would threaten the overall financial system, to pay claims and outstanding borrowings as they fell due;
- ensure that banks whose failure would threaten the overall financial system would have sufficient capital to cushion them from losses caused by further deterioration in the financial markets; and
- encourage banks to lend to creditworthy borrowers.
Q: What support did the Government provide?
HM Treasury’s support to the banks included:
- Recapitalisation of Lloyds Banking Group (Lloyds) and Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) through a series of transactions eventually acquiring 83 per cent of RBS (but 68 per cent of the voting rights) and 41 per cent of Lloyds (of both ordinary shares and voting rights).
- Lending money to the Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS) so it could guarantee customer deposits of up to £50,000. The limit has been increased since then, most recently in January 2017 it was increased to £85,000.
- Lending directly to insolvent banks so they could repay customer deposits of over £50,000, including to London Scottish Bank, Dunfermline Building Society and the Icelandic Banks – Heritable, Kaupthing Singer and Friedlander, and Landsbanki.
- Nationalising Northern Rock and Bradford & Bingley (B&B) to protect their depositors and facilitate the orderly unwinding of their obligations and HM Treasury’s guarantees.
- The Special Liquidity Scheme, introduced in April 2008 and lasting until January 2012, to increase the liquidity of UK banks. It was a Bank of England (BoE) scheme, supported by a HM Treasury guarantee, under which banks swapped assets for more liquid Treasury Bills in return for a fee.
- The Credit Guarantee Scheme, introduced in October 2008, to help restore investor confidence in bank wholesale funding by guaranteeing certain unsecured debts in return for a fee. The scheme closed in 2012.
- The Asset Protection Scheme, announced in January 2009, to protect assets on banks’ balance sheets. RBS and Lloyds initially agreed in principle to join, but in the end only RBS joined. The scheme closed in 2012.
This list excludes loans and commitments to other countries and wider interventions to support the economy. One such intervention is the BoE’s Quantitative Easing Programme, more details can be found on the BoE’s website: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/monetarypolicy/pages/qe/default.aspx.
Q: How much support did the Government provide to UK banks?
There were two types of support provided:
- Provision of guarantees and other non-cash support. The main items under this heading are the Credit Guarantee Scheme, Special Liquidity Scheme and Asset Protection Scheme, as well as various other guarantees and indemnities provided to UK banks.
- Provision of cash in the form of loans to the FSCS and insolvent banks to support deposits, and the purchase of share capital in RBS and Lloyds.
|Peak support (£bn)|
|Total peak support||1,162|
These figures set out our calculation of the total peak support provided to banks, including support that was made available but not used by a specific institution. They are calculated by adding all the support schemes together and removing overlaps.
The peak values have been taken from HM Treasury Annual Report and Accounts, Parliamentary supply estimates and National Audit Office (NAO) reports to Parliament. As each scheme and support facility was available at different times, the total peak support was not all available at a single point in time.
Q: Which banks received support from the UK government?
|Peak support (£bn)||Outstanding
31 March 2018
|Sector wide support schemes|
|Credit Guarantee Scheme||250||–|
|Special Liquidity Scheme||200||–|
|Asset Backed Securities Scheme||50||–|
|Unused recapitalisation fund||13||–|
|Other direct support to specific institutions|
|Royal Bank of Scotland|
|Asset Protection Scheme||202||–|
|Royal Bank of Scotland Ordinary and B shares||46||22|
|Lloyds Banking Group|
|Asset Protection Scheme||255||–|
|Lloyds Banking Group shares||21||_|
|Northern Rock and Northern Rock (Asset Management)||60||5|
|Bradford & Bingley||46||19|
Further information and notes to these figures are set out in the HM Treasury’s 2011-12 and 2017-18 Annual Report and Accounts.
Q: What is the current level of support provided?
The total current level of support provided to banks has fallen significantly from its peak level. This is because the sector wide support schemes have been withdrawn; some of the guaranteed debts and assets in the schemes have matured and been repaid; some guarantees to bank depositors and wholesale funders have been removed; some of the shareholdings have been sold; and banks have started to repay some of the Treasury loans.
|Total outstanding support as at 31 March 2018(£bn)|
The total £1,029 billion guarantees and non-cash support has fallen significantly and stood at £14 billion as at 31 March 2018. All of the sector wide support schemes have now closed and the figure now solely relates to Northern Rock and B&B undrawn loan facilities.
The £133 billion cash provided has been reduced to £32 billion through a variety of mechanisms:
- recoveries from the administrators of financial institutions and repayments by the FSCS levy payers;
- Northern Rock plc was sold to Virgin Money at the end of 2011;
- the government’s shareholding in Lloyds had been sold by 17 May 2017;
- some of the shareholding in RBS was sold in August 2015; and
- repayments of government loans by UK Asset Resolution Limited from repayments and redemptions of mortgages and other loans, as well as sales of mortgage book portfolios. .
Some parts of these schemes and investments may be held by the Government for some time and the eventual profit or loss to the taxpayer will not be known until the loans are repaid or the shares are sold. As at 31 March 2018 the outstanding schemes and investments are:
- Loan repayments from Northern Rock and B&B. The Treasury expects to recover the funds lent to Northern Rock (NRAM) and B&B from the cash flows generated during their wind-down (interest, repayments and redemptions of loans) as well as proceeds from asset sales such as the £11.8 billion sale of B&B mortgages in March 2017. As at 31st March 2018, the outstanding loan balance was £10.2 billion. In April 2018 the Government announced another B&B sale of £5.3 billion, the proceeds from which enabled the repayment of the remaining £4.7 billion government loan provided through FSCS.
- Shareholdings in Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS). The shares in RBS were purchased for £46 billion. The shareholding comprised ordinary shares, B shares and a single Dividend Access Share. In August 2015 some of the ordinary shares in RBS were sold for around £2.1 billion. In March 2016, the final Dividend Access Share dividend payment of £1.2 billion was received, bringing the total receipts to £1.5 billion and retiring the Dividend Access Share. All B shares were converted to ordinary share for market value during the 2015-16 financial year. As at 31 March 2018 the remaining ordinary shares held by HM Treasury had a market value of £21.8 billion and represented a stake of 70 per cent. In June 2018 Treasury completed the sale of £2.5 billion RBS shares, reducing government’s shareholding to 62 per cent.
Q: Did the support achieve value for money for the taxpayer?
We reported in 2009 that “if the support measures had not been put in place, the scale of the economic and social costs if one or more major UK banks had collapsed is difficult to envision. The support provided to the banks was therefore justified, but the final cost to the taxpayer of the support will not be known for a number of years.”
We have also produced a series of more focused evaluative reports on the individual parts of the support schemes. They include:
- The return of Lloyds Banking Group to private ownership (June 2018)
- The first sale of shares in Royal Bank of Scotland (July 2017)
- The £13 billion sale of former Northern Rock assets (July 2016)
- The first sale of shares in Lloyds banking group (December 2013)
- The creation and sale of Northern Rock plc (May 2012)
- Stewardship of the wholly-owned banks: buy-back of subordinated debt (March 2011)
- HM Treasury: The Asset Protection Scheme (December 2010)
- HM Treasury: The nationalisation of Northern Rock (March 2009)
We will continue to update Parliament on the status of the support schemes and major transactions, where appropriate.
Other related NAO reports
Reports on the support as a whole
- Evaluating the government balance sheet: financial assets and investments (June 2016)
- The C&AG’s Report on HM Treasury’s 2014-15 Annual Report and Accounts
- The C&AG’s Report on HM Treasury’s 2013-14 Annual Report and Accounts
- The C&AG’s Report on HM Treasury’s 2012-13 Resource Accounts
- The C&AG’s Report on HM Treasury’s 2011-12 Resource Accounts
- The C&AG’s Report on HM Treasury’s 2010-11 Resource Accounts
- Maintaining financial stability across the United Kingdom’s banking system (December 2009)
- Maintaining the financial stability of UK banks: Update on the support schemes (December 2010)
Last updated: August 2018