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    Auditing the government’s response to COVID-19

  • Posted on July 23, 2020 by

    Gareth Davies

    I last posted to this blog in late April as the country was in the teeth of the COVID-19 pandemic, explaining how we were maintaining our operations and adjusting our work programme in the light of the government response to the virus.

    Now, in late July, most of the UK is gradually emerging from lockdown following a devastating period for many families, an enormous effort by health and care workers and many others in crucial roles and an unprecedented set of government spending interventions to mitigate some of the economic effects of the crisis.

    Like every organisation, the NAO has had to adapt to the new working environment, but throughout this period we have continued to deliver our core programmes of work: the audit of the 2019/20 accounts of more than 400 government departments and public bodies and a substantial programme of value for money reviews and investigations into important spending programmes.

    A substantial proportion of our effort has been redirected to the audit of government’s response to COVID-19. We have published reports on the scale and nature of the public spending commitments and on readying the NHS and social care for the pandemic. We have a further seven studies already underway to begin publishing in the Autumn, and more in the planning phases. We’ve developed our COVID-19 hub for people to follow our work on this.

    Looking back, at the point that Parliament rose for its summer recess, we had completed the audits of 171 departments and public bodies, including some of our larger audits such as the Department for Work and Pensions and the Home Office. Our work on the remainder continues over the summer and those audited accounts will be laid in Parliament from its resumption in September. I’m grateful to both my audit teams and the finance teams of our audited bodies for their determined approach to obtaining the audit evidence we need when working remotely, and for addressing the financial reporting challenges posed by the pandemic including volatile valuations and going concern risks.

    We have continued to complete and publish value for money reports on vital areas of public interest, including universal credit, the MoD’s aircraft carrier programme, asylum accommodation and support and digital transformation in the NHS. Our factual investigations have included reports on progress in removing dangerous cladding from residential blocks, the selection of towns to bid for money from the £3.6bn Towns Fund and government’s response to the collapse of Thomas Cook. This work has supported sessions of the Public Accounts Committee which has been meeting virtually throughout.

    Our Overview of the UK government’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic brought together in one place all of the main activities, costs and funding undertaken by government in the initial months and laid the foundation for us to build our programme of more in depth studies. We also looked further into the action the Department of Health & Social Care and other bodies undertook during March and April to ready the NHS and adult social care for a rapid increase in the number of infected people.

    Looking forward, we have a broad and varied programme of work on COVID-19 to come once Parliament reconvenes in the Autumn. We have several reports planned on the important issue of government procurement. They include an audit of government buying in the pandemic, as well as specific studies into the efforts to increase the number of ventilators available to the NHS and on supplying the NHS and adult social care sector with PPE.

    We will also examine measures aimed at protecting businesses and individuals from the economic impact of the coronavirus pandemic. This includes reports into the Bounce Back Loan Scheme and the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme. Other studies will look into the government’s work to protect and support the vulnerable during lockdown and the Free School Meals voucher scheme. Our website has full details of our work in progress related to COVID-19, and we will continue to add further reviews to this list as they are approved.

    In all of this work, we will examine how government adapted its approach to reflect the need for urgency in the first phase of the pandemic, and how it is managing the attendant risks to value for money and probity in public spending. Our reports will be published, laid in Parliament and be available to the Public Accounts Committee for its programme of inquiries in the normal way.

    We will continue to respond to the risks to public money posed by this unprecedented time for the country to provide the assurance required by Parliament and the public and to draw out the lessons for future phases of this pandemic and future emergencies.

    Read more about our work to report on the government’s response to the coronavirus pandemic.


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  • How data analytics can help with audits

  • Posted on July 20, 2020 by

    Data analytics has become an integral part of the audit process. And where a few years ago it was an area where we were exploring and creating tactical solutions to problems, today the NAO, like many organisations, has developed a strong capability and is making significant progress towards the widespread adoption of data analytics across all elements of our audit work.  

    more… How data analytics can help with audits


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  • I won’t be satisfied until the NAO is a fantastic place to work for all

  • Posted on June 25, 2020 by

    Abdool Kara in conversation

    In January of this year, I took on senior level responsibility for leading the NAO’s people agenda as we reviewed and reset our strategy. I quickly recognised that that this was to be a significant undertaking for the organisation, with much work to do if we are to become the exemplar employer that we aspire to be.

    What I did not and could not know at the time was how our world would be transformed over the course of a few months. Firstly, the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic, having to deal with its impact on our people, as well as, in the fullness of time, covering it in our programme of work. Secondly, the consequences of the killing of George Floyd, highlighting the injustices faced by black people not only in the USA but here in the UK as well.

    I have long been interested in the issues of racism, from witnessing the demonstrations and riots of the 1980s in my teens. My heritage on my father’s side, whilst not drawn directly from slavery, is the result of the importation of indentured ‘coolie’ labour brought from India to replace the slaves who had previously worked the sugar cane fields of Mauritius. And I have experienced both direct and indirect prejudice, and yes racism, on many occasions throughout my career.

    On the one hand, we have been here before, witnessing tragic events which shine a spotlight on the devastating effects of racism on our communities and reminding us of our country’s history of slavery and colonialism. What feels different this time is the acceptance that racism exists throughout our society, rather than the issue being swept under the carpet. It gives me hope – less ‘it doesn’t happen here’ and more ‘this is an important conversation for the nation’. Change may, finally, be upon us in a new wave of civil rights that feels essential, immediate and in step with the times we live in.

    But change is not an external force – all change starts with people taking personal responsibility for their actions, and organisations putting their own houses in order. I and my senior colleagues are committed to accelerating the NAO’s progress in becoming a genuinely inclusive organisation which embraces and values difference and supports our people to bring the full breadth of their thinking, experience and skills to work.

    At the forefront of our new strategy is our people, it is our commitment to bringing about genuine change in the lived experience of colleagues from all backgrounds, but especially our black and minority ethnic colleagues who have not always been well served by our ability to embrace their talents and enhance their opportunities.

    As an organisation whose very purpose is to hold government and public bodies to account for their progress in improving public services for all communities, we recognise that we cannot speak with authority if our own record on diversity and inclusion is open to question. Therefore, our aspiration is to be an exemplar employer in all respects, but with a focus on key areas, such as BAME representation at senior levels in our business, where we have the most progress to make.

    We also need to ensure that our work, such as our Windrush report, continues to highlight inequalities in the way public services are delivered and secures deep and sustained improvement in the outcomes for the most vulnerable groups in society. The vast statistical differences in the impact of COVID-19 on different ethnicities and socio-economic groups is raising important questions that need examining.

    We are evidence-led when assessing the services of others and must be equally evidence-led in our assessment of ourselves. Doing so will help us to openly acknowledge the challenges we face in achieving sustained improvement in our approach to equality, diversity and inclusion for all our people. As an organisation we are particularly dissatisfied with the progression rates for BAME colleagues in recent years. We need to make change quickly and remove barriers to progression wherever we find them.

    This is a serious commitment which requires deep and permanent change and we are putting in place a range of measures to realise our ambitions. We are building on recent progress in improving the diversity of our graduate intake by applying rigorous requirements for diverse shortlists in all our recruitment and promotion campaigns. We have also launched our first diversity mentoring scheme which is giving our senior leaders much richer insight into the experiences of female, black, disabled, LGBT+ and underprivileged colleagues. Also, each member of our executive team takes an active role in sponsoring one of our diversity networks so that their voice is heard at the most senior levels of our business.

    We will shortly be publishing our 2019-20 Diversity and Inclusion Annual Report which provides an honest and transparent assessment of where we see that tangible progress has been made, but also sets out clearly where we have more to do.

    The recent launch of our new five-year strategy highlights our commitment of having a diverse, inclusive and healthy workforce as a key enabler in delivering our strategic priorities. We will be consulting on our new Diversity and Inclusion Strategy for 2021-23, which will support us in realising our ambition of being an exemplar employer, where all colleagues can realise their full potential irrespective of background.

    I am conscious that statements of aspiration can often sound hollow without clear actions and demonstrable improvements, but as senior leader for the NAO’s people agenda I am fully committed to seeing genuine, sustained and beneficial change for our people and know that I have the support of my colleagues to make this happen.

    Reshaping our culture and bringing to life our new values, which include respect and inclusion at their heart, will be key to this. So too will practical actions to revise our HR and other policies and practices which we know can reflect or enable unconscious bias.

    So, there is plenty for us to get on with. But my personal passion and commitment to the equalities agenda, born from my own heritage and life experiences, both professional and personal, mean that I won’t be satisfied until the NAO is a fantastic place to work for all.

    1 Comment

  • COVID-19: What it means for the NAO

  • Posted on April 22, 2020 by

    Gareth Davies

    With Parliament returning yesterday, I wanted to take the opportunity to reflect on the last few extraordinary weeks and set out what it means for the National Audit Office and its work.

    Firstly though, on behalf of the whole NAO, I would like to pay tribute to everyone who is working so hard to see our country through this crisis. That of course includes our courageous health and social care workers and others on the front line of the response, but also all the public servants behind the scenes at the national and local level keeping our country going. As the organisation responsible for scrutinising so many of these public bodies, we have a privileged insight into how vital they are to everyone’s lives every day – and even more so at a time like this.

    To all of the public servants rising to this unprecedented challenge, thank you.

    Like many other organisations, the NAO has been home-based for a month now. In infrastructure terms, the NAO was well-prepared for homeworking as our systems are designed to support secure remote auditing. We are working hard to support our staff as they grapple with the practical and wellbeing challenges of the current situation. We are of course not the only ones. And as an organisation that supports Parliament, that has been especially brought home to us as we see the House of Commons resume business in a manner we have never seen before.

    As Parliament adapts, so too are we in order to ensure that we can help it to hold government to account. The response to the global pandemic will have implications for many years for public spending and public service delivery. It is too early to tell exactly what the impact will be, but it will be profound.

    What is already clear is that MPs, and the public that they represent, will expect us to carry out a substantial programme of work on the COVID-19 response so we can learn for the future. This will include looking at government spending on the direct health response as well as the wider emergency response. We will also look at the spending on the measures to protect businesses and individuals from the economic impact.

    It will take us time to develop and produce our work, more importantly it will take time for the public sector to be in a place where it can learn from our findings. Our challenge is to try and provide the appropriate level of evidence-based reporting to support accountability and provide insight at the most suitable time. We must not get in the way of public servants working hard to save lives, but we must also ensure that our reporting is sufficiently prompt to support proper accountability for public money.

    We have decided to begin with a factual summary of the significant government spending commitments and programmes relating to COVID-19 which we hope to publish next month. We will use this to identify a risk-based series of evaluative studies where we think there is most to learn.

    What is also important to Parliament is that we do not lose sight of the wider picture. There are many other challenges facing the UK including EU Exit; progress in meeting government’s net zero carbon emissions target; major infrastructure projects and the financial sustainability of key public services. Our work programme will have to balance this with the demands of COVID-19. That is why we will be continuing to publish reports already in train. We are also working hard to meet our key statutory duty to audit the accounts of over 450 public bodies.

    My colleagues and I are committed to providing Parliament and the public with the evidence they need to understand how public money has been used in tackling this crisis. We will also help ensure that the appropriate lessons are learned for the future.


    1 Comment

  • Utilising technology when working from home

  • Posted on April 16, 2020 by

    person working from home office

    COVID-19 is affecting us all. The way we live, work and socialise has changed dramatically. The National Audit Office is no different, our staff are working from home and we will also have an important role to play in reporting on the government’s response to COVID-19. You can find more information on our emerging plans here. In the meantime, we’re resharing some of our knowledge on how organisations can make a success of working remotely at this time.

    Technology is a great enabler for working from home, but there are pitfalls to avoid. In September 2017, we issued a guide to cyber security for audit committees and now is an appropriate time to revisit some of the key points.

    The National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) and the Crown Commercial Service (CCS) have also recently produced guidance on how people can buy and use the appropriate tools to work from home safely.

    Policies and procedures

    The most important point to note is that your organisation’s information security policies and procedures still apply – they exist for good reason. Security shouldn’t be sacrificed, even during difficult and uncertain times.

    If your organisation doesn’t have a homeworking policy, now could be an opportunity to think about what it might look like. But don’t be forced into a knee-jerk reaction because of the current situation; take the time to get the approach right and build it into your longer-term business continuity arrangements.

    Using personally owned IT

    If your organisation routinely provides laptops to staff which are securely configured and set up for remote access, then you’re in a good place. If not, Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) is a possibility, but inevitably this approach brings risks that need to be considered. The main risks are around unauthorised access and data loss.

    A popular BYOD approach for smartphones and tablets running Android or iOS is the ‘managed container application’. This means all corporate data is accessed via one or more designated apps (for example, Microsoft Office). This allows strong controls to protect and isolate corporate data from the user’s personal apps and prevents copying and pasting of data across the container boundary.

    Use of personal PCs is a more difficult area. Technology such as remote desktops minimises the risk of data loss as the apps and data stay on the remote server. Most IT departments will be familiar with remote desktops, and the main barrier to their more widespread use is having the necessary infrastructure to support the volume of users required.

    Allowing users to access work data through a web browser over an internet connection from their own PC might seem an attractive option, particularly with more services becoming available in the ‘cloud‘. However, NCSC are clear that this is a risky approach.

    They advise that it’s difficult to gain confidence in the security or configuration of the PC, and there are limited technical controls you can enforce to reliably prevent data loss or access from insecure or out-of-date devices. And, from a legal perspective, responsibility for protecting data and complying with GDPR and the Data Protection Act 2018 rests with the data controller, not the device owner. You may also have commercial arrangements that restrict running of business software on or accessing business data from personally owned devices.

    Collaborative working

    There are many established software tools for videoconferencing and collaborative working. Common apps include Microsoft Teams, Skype for Business, Google Hangouts, Cisco WebEx, GoToMeeting and Zoom. Do bear in mind that these should be securely configured, their privacy policies and settings reviewed, and used appropriately in relation to the sensitivity of the meeting content being discussed.

    Where you are meeting with a third party, it would be wise to set agreed expectations around call recording and screen sharing and request explicit permission before capturing any information discussed during the meeting, for example screenshots.

    Home environment

    There are also considerations relating to the home working environment itself. Devices outside an office environment are more vulnerable to theft or loss. This can be mitigated by physical security measures and by encryption – but do check that each device is turned on and set up correctly.

    Also consider your policy around printing from home and whether it’s necessary. Information in physical form needs to be protected in the same way as information in electronic form. Forwarding information from work to personal email accounts for printing is a big confidentiality risk, so where there is a legitimate need to print, you will need to make suitable arrangements.

    In shared accommodation, you should also be aware of who might be able to overlook your screen or overhear your teleconferences. There are reports that some organisations are advising people to turn off smart speakers and voice assistants during working hours when sensitive matters are being discussed.

    Preventing unauthorised access to devices is another obvious but essential consideration – NCSC has recently issued guidance on good password policy, including practical suggestions for reducing password overload for end users.

    Phishing scams

    Be aware of phishing scams, whether by email or text message. This advice applies generally, and some security companies have reported seeing a large increase in phishing attacks as a result of the current pandemic. NCSC has good advice on spotting suspicious emails.

    It’s important to promote and maintain a strong security-minded culture, even when your people are trying to collaborate and work flexibly.

    Obtaining IT equipment and services

    The Crown Commercial Service (CCS) has published information on a number of agreements that can enable the public sector and related organisations to quickly and easily procure technology products and services to allow employees to work more flexibly.

    CCS also note that a number of providers of collaboration software are offering introductory or extended trials of their products. These include Microsoft (Office365), Google (G Suite, Hangouts Meet) and Cisco (WebEx, Duo, Umbrella, AnyConnect).

    And finally

    The current situation is putting unprecedented pressure on individuals and organisations alike but try not to lose sight of the security basics. If you’re struggling to get a fully-fledged remote working strategy in place I’d recommend focusing on the fundamentals. Find the right approach for your organisation and gradually build it into your longer-term business continuity arrangements.

    We’re all having to adapt to these new ways of working, but don’t worry there’s plenty of support out there to help you protect your corporate and customer data.


    1 Comment

  • The new Code of Audit Practice: helping local public services rise to the extraordinary challenges ahead

  • Posted on April 8, 2020 by

    Local audit

    We all rely on local public services to be able to function in our day-to-day lives, and in these challenging times, we’re even more reliant on those services. Whether from local authorities, local NHS organisations police forces and fire and rescue organisations, to keep us safe and take care of us should we need it.

    At the National Audit Office (NAO) we’re responsible for scrutinising the spending of central government departments, agencies and other national public bodies but who audits local public services? And what do those auditors do?

    Local public bodies are audited by firms appointed as local auditors. Every year, they carry out their work auditing these bodies’ accounts and assessing the adequacy of their arrangements to secure value for money. They carry out this work in accordance with the Code of Audit Practice and, although the NAO doesn’t audit local public bodies, the Code they must follow is set by the Comptroller and Auditor General (C&AG) who leads the NAO.

    The law requires the Code to be reviewed at least once every five years, which meant a revised Code was due by April 2020. So, back in the summer of 2018 we started on the project to review and prepare a new Code.

    Our review of the Code

    The review of the Code came at an interesting time in the audit world, given both the increased level of interest in the audit profession more widely, and the announcement of a number of independent reviews across the profession. The review by Sir Donald Brydon and, more recently, the review of local authority audit and financial reporting being undertaken by Sir Tony Redmond. To add to this complex environment, the review started under the NAO’s previous C&AG but was to be completed under our new C&AG, Gareth Davies, who arrived at the NAO in June 2019.

    We wanted to ensure that we were engaging as widely as possible, so last Spring we began the first stage of our consultation process, seeking views about the issues people considered were relevant to the development of the new Code. We received over 40 formal responses to the first stage of the consultation and gathered further useful information from wider engagement through attendance at conferences and other events

    Having taken into account those views, we drafted the text of the new Code and undertook a further public consultation on the draft text in the autumn of 2019. The draft was further refined in light of this second round of feedback, and the final draft of the Code was then laid before Parliament in January 2020. It received approval in March and, almost two years after the project began, came into force last week. The Code applies to audits of 2020-21 financial statements onwards.

    What’s changed under the new Code?

    In the first part of our consultation, we received a lot of feedback telling us that people wanted auditors’ work to be more useful to the bodies being audited as well as the wider public, that reporting by auditors should be more timely, and that much of the language used by auditors was not readily understandable to a non-accountant.

    A significant proportion of these comments were made in relation to the work auditors do assessing and reporting on the arrangements that local audited bodies have in place to secure value for money. Unlike the NAO’s studies, where we report on whether value for money has actually been achieved, local auditors look at the overall arrangements that bodies have in place across a range of areas covering decision making, governance, and working with others through partnerships. From the consultation, it was clear that people wanted to see more information being reported from auditors’ work, and in particular in relation to financial sustainability.

    The new Code looks to address these issues by requiring auditors to issue an annual commentary on the arrangements that bodies have in place, under three focussed headings:

    • Financial Sustainability
    • Governance and
    • Improving Economy, Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Where an auditor finds significant weaknesses in a body’s arrangements, they are expected to bring this to the body’s attention promptly, and to accompany it with clear recommendations setting out what the body should do to address the weakness. The commentary and recommendations will be set out in an Auditor’s Annual Report, that will bring together all of the work the auditor has undertaken in the previous year, including following up on recommendations made previously.

    Looking ahead

    For the NAO, the publication of the new Code is not the end of the story. Colleagues are now working hard to develop the detailed guidance that will sit underneath the new Code, and we’re again looking to consult the relevant sectors extensively as we take forward its development.

    I’m delighted that the new Code has now come into force and would like to thank colleagues in the NAO’s Local Audit Code and Guidance Team for their work in bringing the new Code into being, and to all of you who responded constructively to our various consultations over the last 18 months.  I look forward to seeing the impact that the approaches I’ve outlined here will have on helping to ensure that local public bodies continually improve their arrangements to make best use of their scarce resources.

    2020-21 will be a very challenging year for local bodies as they put in place all kinds of arrangements to cope, with the new reality presented by COVID-19 Coronavirus. Through the new Code, local auditors will have an opportunity to use their reporting to help their clients rise to the challenge.

    Get more information about the new Code of Audit Practice.

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  • What’s it like to be Chair of the NAO?

  • Posted on March 4, 2020 by

    Lord Michael Bichard

    It’s difficult to believe that I have been the Chair of the NAO for nearly six years, but all good things come to an end. Because the term of office is limited by statute, I shall shortly be stepping down. In fact, the advert for my successor is now public. 

    This has been one of those jobs which I shall look back on with great affection. For a start it has allowed me to work with people of the highest quality who have a real passion for what they do. At the same time I have been able to stay close to the key issues of government and to play a part in shaping the direction and strategy of the organisation, at a moment when the independent role of the NAO has never been more important.  

    Whether through its financial audit or value for money work, the NAO has played a unique and invaluable part in safeguarding governance, promoting the more efficient use of scarce resources and clarifying the ever more complex accountability arrangements that now surround the delivery of public services. I am especially proud of the way in which we have maintained the quality of our work and courageously exposed failings when they have occurred. Without the NAO the public would have been much less conscious of the problems with universal credit, the cost and delays of Crossrail, the vulnerable state of local government finance and the mismanagement of several major IT projects. 

    At the same time, we cannot be complacent. As the previous Comptroller and Auditor General memorably said, “we have to be much more than mortuary attendants”. Rather, we need to play a full part in helping to improve the quality of public services and to use the knowledge and information we have to that end. That’s why I have constantly emphasised the need for us always to be looking to add value and to measure our success by the impact we make. Are things changing for the better as a result of our work? For me the answer to that question is still not enough.  

    As one of our stakeholders said during the current Strategic Review, “you know more than you tell”; using our knowledge to best effect has to be a priority as we move forward. In truth, any great organisation knows there is always more to do. That is why our strategic review is so important and why the arrival of a new Comptroller and Auditor General provides exciting opportunities.  

    I have greatly enjoyed working with two brilliant Comptrollers and my successor will want to quickly establish a strong relationship with Gareth Davies to support him in dealing with the many external challenges which the office will face as well as driving through the organisational changes we need. 

    Chairing the NAO is a privilege and a chance to make a difference to the way our public services are delivered. I am stepping down reluctantly, but I know there are others who share my passion for the work we do, and I hope that they will think about taking on the role. 

    Get more information on the role of NAO Chair.

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  • Right data, right place, right time

  • Posted on July 16, 2019 by

    Image of woman with laptop and data flying out

    Have you ever had the frustration of having to provide the same information about yourself to different government services? Have you ever had to make decisions without information about what does and doesn’t work? Data is fundamental to delivering public services, improving systems and processes, and supporting sound decisions – but accessing accurate data is far from easy. Drawing from our recent report, Challenges in using data across government, I highlight here some of the difficulties, their implications and ways they can be addressed.

    more… Right data, right place, right time



  • Major programmes – what are we learning?

  • Posted on July 4, 2019 by

    Image of a suited man considering options

    Since we first published our Framework to review programmes in 2017 there has been no let-up in NAO reports on major projects and programmes, most recently on Crossrail, the Emergency Services Network and the Stonehenge by-pass road. From the need to manage the risks of untried approaches to signs warning of unrealistic cost estimates, this blog highlights some of the themes emerging from our recent work on major programmes, which have been incorporated into our updated guidance.

    more… Major programmes – what are we learning?



  • Cloud services: asking the right questions

  • Posted on June 27, 2019 by

    Image of cloud computing

    ‘Cloud services’ can bring cost and performance benefits. But they can also bring new challenges and risks. To help leaders oversee decision-making and implementation of cloud services, we recently published ‘Guidance for audit committees on cloud services’. The magazine, Public Sector Executive, invited us to outline the issues in the article The National Audit Office’s guide to cloud services and has kindly allowed us to reproduce it on this Blog.

    more… Cloud services: asking the right questions


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  • About the NAO blog

    Our experts share their views about issues and common challenges facing government, what public sector leaders should look out for and how organisations have addressed issues. Our posts draw together threads from across our reports, share secrets spilled in events and reveal our experts’ expectations for the future.

    We encourage comments that support the exchange of ideas for improvement, but ask that those posting are respectful of others.

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