The Home Office’s delay in introducing the National Law Enforcement Data Service (NLEDS) is putting police access to vital information at risk, according to a new report by the National Audit Office (NAO).

The programme to develop the NLEDS was launched by the Home Office in 2016 to replace two police IT systems: the Police National Computer (PNC)1 and the Police National Database (PND)2. These systems are heavily relied on by the police and are considered part of the UK’s critical infrastructure, but they are reaching the end of their lives, with their technology becoming obsolete.

With an original planned delivery date of 2020, the NLEDS programme has yet to deliver the expected services, and the total costs to the Home Office have increased by 68% to £1.1 billion3.  An independent programme review commissioned by the Home Office found that if the programme continued as it was, it would be late, difficult and costly to roll out and maintain, and would not meet the needs of the police. Following this review, in December 2020 the Home Office reset the programme for the second time and removed the replacement of the PND from its scope4.

Under the new plans, the programme is not expected to deliver a service equivalent to the current PNC until 2025-26. The PNC’s current technology for its database will no longer be supported after December 2024, but the Department told the NAO it had decided to accept the risk of running the PNC without supplier support for the database after this point. This would leave the PNC at higher risk of disruption for at least a year, although the Department’s view is that the actual risk profile is low due to the mitigation actions put in place. In April 2021, the Home Office had only ‘moderate confidence’ in its new plans and did not have a programme plan assuring delivery by 2025-26. In June 2021, the Home Office told the NAO that it had increased confidence in the deliverability of the programme.

Delays to the NLEDS programme bring greater risks for police operations and require the police to bear more cost. The Home Office must continue to run existing systems at a cost of £21 million per year for the PNC and £13 million for the PND. The Home Office’s March 2021 estimate shows that NLEDS, when complete, is expected to cost £17 million per year. If there are further delays to the NLEDS programme, the Home Office may also need to migrate the PNC to a new operating system, which could take three years and cost at least £30 million. In January 2021 the PNC experienced a data loss affecting 112,697 person records. The Home Office’s efforts to recover the data lost were made more difficult by the ageing technology on which the PNC is based. By 24 May 2021 all the records affected by the incident had been recovered.

The Home Office and the police have not had a consistent shared understanding of what NLEDS will deliver, and since 2016 the Infrastructure and Projects Authority (IPA) has repeatedly reported a lack of consistency in stakeholders’ understanding of the programme scope, approach and benefits. The focus of the programme has changed several times, and it has not been clear if the programme aims to replace the functions of current ageing systems or to introduce enhanced capabilities for police and other users. The NAO also found that the Home Office and police only documented the ‘vision’ for the programme in September 2018, almost two years into its development.

In autumn 2020 the police lost confidence in the programme, formally raising their concerns with the Home Office’s Permanent Secretary. Whilst the Home Office has recognised the importance of regaining the confidence of the police, and the programme team is now seeking to work more collaboratively with stakeholders, it is too early to assess the results of this new approach. The programme’s senior police stakeholders have expressed increasing confidence in the programme’s developing delivery plans.

The NAO recommends that the Home Office should immediately clarify its role and that of the police in the delivery of the new service and agree a revised business case for the programme. The Home Office should set out clear plans on how NLEDS will replace PNC capabilities by the time required and how it can guarantee that the PNC can be relied on by police until NLEDS is ready.

“After a succession of delays, resets, and changes in scope, the cost of the NLEDS programme has increased significantly, and it is still not clear whether the Home Office will be able to deliver the programme before the existing infrastructure becomes obsolete.  

“Fragile technology is limiting the ability of the police and other organisations to carry out their job effectively and ultimately putting the security and safety of the public at risk. The Home Office must urgently work with the police to guarantee a clear timeline for the programme, avoiding any further delays.”

Gareth Davies, the head of the NAO

Read the full report

The National Law Enforcement Data Programme

Notes for editors

  1. The PNC is the most important national policing information system in the UK. Since 1974 it has been the main database of criminal records. It is used by front-line officers from all 45 local police forces in the UK to understand who they are interacting with, as well as by 127 other organisations who need to access the data it holds. In 2019-20 the police searched or updated the PNC 133 million times.
  2. The PND was introduced in 2011 following the Bichard Inquiry in 2004, which criticised police information sharing and recommended a national intelligence-sharing system be created. It makes more than four billion pieces of police intelligence available to licensed users in police forces and 18 other organisations.
  3. The total costs to the Home Office include the cost of replacing the PNC with NLEDS and the cost of continuing to run the PND, which has now been removed from the scope of the NLEDS programme.
  4. The Department began its first reset of NLEDS in early 2019. It also carried out reviews of technical scope in 2019 and July 2020, and an external assessment of the programme’s overall deliverability in November 2020, before the second reset in December 2020.
About the NAO The National Audit Office (NAO) scrutinises public spending for Parliament and is independent of government and the civil service. It helps Parliament hold government to account and it uses its insights to help people who manage and govern public bodies improve public services. The Comptroller and Auditor General (C&AG), Gareth Davies, is an Officer of the House of Commons and leads the NAO. The NAO audits the financial accounts of departments and other public bodies. It also examines and report on the value for money of how public money has been spent. In 2020, the NAO's work led to a positive financial impact through reduced costs, improved service delivery, or other benefits to citizens, of £926 million.

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